Natural vs Human Sys

Systems science, strictly defined, tends to study natural systems such as astronomical-cosmological systems, physical systems, chemical systems, geological systems, biological systems, the computer sciences, mathematics, and their many specialties. This is the usual range of “natural” systems. These are systems that existed millions and billions of years before the first conscious humans ever even existed. They can also be more easily studied by the scientific method. However, human and societal systems arose from them and are also “natural” in the sense of the adjective describing what occurs spontaneously. Yet, the results and experiences of both are often found in conflict. For example, today’s politics of climate change has advocates of opposite policies and conclusions that characterize the natural versus some representatives of the human cohort.

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